Motion of the SU is limited to minute amounts of rotation and of translation Rotation: -1.1 to 2.2 degrees along the X-axis -0.8 to 4.0 degrees along the Y-axis -0.5 to 8.0 degrees along the Z-axis. Translation: -0.3 to 8.0 (mm) along the X-axis -0.2 to 7.0 mm along the Y-axis -0.3 to 6.0 mm along the Z-axis The use of a cluster of motion palpation or provocation tests is a more acceptable/reliable method than single test to assess SIJ or the clinical methods utilizing palpation for diagnosing SU pathology. Patrick / FABER test Thigh thrust or posterior shear test Resisted abduction test Standing flexion test Sitting flexion test Gillet test Prone knee flexion test Gaenslen’s provocation SIJ test Distraction provocation SIJ test Sacral thrust provocation SIJ test Reliability of the individual tests Poor, can be influenced by several factors such as the participants, therapists and clinical tests, insufficient pressure when applying provocation tests may generate many false negatives Reliability for the cluster of motion palpation or provocation tests Moderate to excellent reliability of three or more positive tests References: - Arab, A.M., Abdollahi, I., Joghataei, M.T., Golafshani, Z. and Kazemnejad, A., 2009. Inter-and intra-examiner reliability of single and composites of selected motion palpation and pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint. Manual therapy, 14(2), pp.213-221. - Goode, A., Hegedus, E.J., Sizer, P., Brismee, J.M., Linberg, A. and Cook, C.E., 2008. Three-dimensional movements of the sacroiliac joint: a systematic review of the literature and assessment of clinical utility. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(1), pp.25-38. - Laslett, M., Aprill, C.N., McDonald, B. and Young, S.B., 2005. Diagnosis of sacroiliac joint pain: validity of individual provocation tests and composites of tests. Manual therapy, 10(3), pp.207-218. - Robinson, H.S., Brox, J.I., Robinson, R., Bjelland, E., Solem, S. and Telje, T., 2007. The reliability of selected motion-and pain provocation tests for the sacroiliac joint. Manual therapy, 12(1), pp.72-79. - Laslett, M., 2008. Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of the painful sacroiliac joint. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(3), pp.142-152.