Motion of the SU is limited to minute amounts of rotation and of translation
-1.1 to 2.2 degrees along the X-axis
-0.8 to 4.0 degrees along the Y-axis
-0.5 to 8.0 degrees along the Z-axis.
-0.3 to 8.0 (mm) along the X-axis
-0.2 to 7.0 mm along the Y-axis
-0.3 to 6.0 mm along the Z-axis
The use of a cluster of motion palpation or provocation tests is a more acceptable/reliable method than single test to assess SIJ or the clinical methods utilizing palpation for diagnosing SU pathology.
Patrick / FABER test
Thigh thrust or posterior shear test
Resisted abduction test
Standing flexion test
Sitting flexion test
Prone knee flexion test
Gaenslen’s provocation SIJ test
Distraction provocation SIJ test
Sacral thrust provocation SIJ test
Reliability of the individual tests
Poor, can be influenced by several factors such as the participants, therapists and clinical tests, insufficient pressure when applying provocation tests may generate many false negatives
Reliability for the cluster of motion palpation or provocation tests
Moderate to excellent reliability of three or more positive tests
- Arab, A.M., Abdollahi, I., Joghataei, M.T., Golafshani, Z. and Kazemnejad, A., 2009. Inter-and intra-examiner reliability of single and composites of selected motion palpation and pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint. Manual therapy, 14(2), pp.213-221.
- Goode, A., Hegedus, E.J., Sizer, P., Brismee, J.M., Linberg, A. and Cook, C.E., 2008. Three-dimensional movements of the sacroiliac joint: a systematic review of the literature and assessment of clinical utility. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(1), pp.25-38.
- Laslett, M., Aprill, C.N., McDonald, B. and Young, S.B., 2005. Diagnosis of sacroiliac joint pain: validity of individual provocation tests and composites of tests. Manual therapy, 10(3), pp.207-218.
- Robinson, H.S., Brox, J.I., Robinson, R., Bjelland, E., Solem, S. and Telje, T., 2007. The reliability of selected motion-and pain provocation tests for the sacroiliac joint. Manual therapy, 12(1), pp.72-79.
- Laslett, M., 2008. Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of the painful sacroiliac joint. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(3), pp.142-152.