Chronic pain does not have individually identifiable causes, but is the result of various causes and influential factors.
Modern brain-imaging techniques have confirmed psychological assumptions on pain and provide the basis for an improved understanding of how psychological and somatic factors act together. As Chen summarized, there is not just one pain centre associated with the pain, but a neuronal matrix made up of all areas that are activated by sensory, affective, and cognitive data.
Take away message
Patient education, listen and talk to your patient (Patients should be provided with information and knowledge using written or graphic materials as well as videos)
Patient is an active participant in the treatment process
Reduce medication, use correct medication, and prevent misuse
Encourage an active life style and movement therapy
Focus on what the patients can do not what they cannot do